AIT did the Thailand part of the study and analyzed housing rights of migrants (Cambodian, Burmese, Lao) in Pathumthani, Thailand. The study found that women tend to pay higher rent for the reason for better security.
There are many young migrants from Cambodia to Thailand, who migrant alone or with their family members. The study explored the opportunity cost of such decision to migrate and the advantage that they might get by migrating. The study showed the struggle that young women migrants face to balance their own aspiration and their family responsibilities. There is an opportunity cost for youths to migrate and they need to forego their chances of higher education and network building back home.
There is a large demographic change in fishing communities in Asia – either because of aging or because of out-migration. The study compared the situation in Thailand (aging society) and Cambodia (out-migration) fishing communities, and analyzed what has been the impact of demographic changes to fishing occupation, and how fishers are adapting to such changes. The study showed how the impact of demographic changes is shaped by existing laws and policies as well as fisheries resources availability. Women are seen to play a large role in adjusting to the changes through their non-fish work. Care for the elderly is seen to be a great challenge for both Thailand and Cambodia, and neither countries are expecting children to take care of the elderlies while it is increasing becoming difficult for younger generations to do so.
Keywords demographic changes, ageing, migration, fisheries, care work
The project studied migration in fishing communities in Cambodia, India and Sri Lanka. It explored how migration is used as a strategy to manage diminishing fishing resources and the deprivation that fishers are facing vis a vis large players in fishing. In Cambodia, it demonstrated how women play a crucial role in sustaining fishing as a profession for the household.
Guided by the question of whether the jobs being created within these zones are promoting decent work for women migrant workers, this study developed four case studies of SEZs: Thilawa SEZ (Yangon Region, Myanmar), Phnom Penh SEZ (Phnom Penh, Cambodia), Manhattan SEZ (Svay Rieng Province, Cambodia), and Tak SEZ (Tak Province, Thailand), with a particular focus on the garment industry.
Keywords women, garment factory workers, special economic zones, migration
The Head of Department, Kyoko Kusakabe, Professor was a discussant in the “Discussion of Thailand Migration Report 2019” at February 10 @ 5:00 pm – 6:30 pm.
On 24 January 2019, the UN Thematic Working Group on Migration – comprised of 16 UN agencies and chaired by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) – launched the Thailand Migration Report 2019 at the UNESCO office in Bangkok. This report detailing the situation of migrants in Thailand is the latest in a series published on a regular basis by the Working Group since 2005.
This attention is warranted as Thailand is a key country of origin, transit and destination for migrants, displaced persons and asylum seekers, and a regional migration hub within South-East Asia. Since the report was last published in 2014, official data shows that migration to Thailand has intensified. The non-Thai population on in the country now stands at an estimated 4.9 million, a substantial increase from 3.7 million in 2014.
The report provides up-to-date information on migration trends and patterns in Thailand, as well as independent analysis of migration-related issues and policy developments. Each of the 11 chapters, written by a specific UN agency, delves into specific themes such as working conditions, access to services, migration and development, human trafficking and exploitation. It does not shy away from addressing sensitive issues, including the decriminalization of sex work and conditions of forced labor within key industries in Thailand.